Work in the Cipollini laboratory generally focuses on the chemical ecology of plant responses to the environment, with a focus on induced plant responses to herbivores and pathogens and the chemical ecology of invasive plants, insects, and microbes. One important theme is the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the expression, costs, and benefits of plant resistance traits, and on subsequent outcomes of the interaction of plants with their biotic and abiotic environment. Within this context, our interests range from highly mechanistic descriptions of constitutive and inducible plant defenses and their impacts on other species and plant fitness, to evolution of plant defenses and community level impacts. We have spent nearly 15 years working to understand invasiveness and impacts of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), an important invasive mustard that has allelopathic effects on other plants, insects, and soil microbes, like mycorrhizae. Our interests have extended to the expression and role of plant defenses in woody plant ecology, including that of the invasive shrub, Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) and interactions between the invasive beetle, the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis), and its susceptible and resistant ash (Fraxinus) tree hosts. Recent work extending from the Garlic Mustard, Honeysuckle, and Ash systems displays more focus on insect counter defenses to host plant resistance factors. Other collaborative projects involve the chemical ecology of a midge galling system in goldenrod (Solidago) species, the chemical ecology of fungal and insect resistance in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra), and the conservation biology and genetics of the endangered wetland plant, Northeastern Bulrush (Scirpus ancistrochaetus). We have worked experimentally with bacteria, fungi, insects, and plants, and use a variety of techniques including basic experimental greenhouse and field ecology techniques, microscopy, molecular analyses, and analytical chemistry techniques such as HPLC. Interested students can choose to focus on any of these sorts of areas, but are encouraged to integrate their studies across multiple levels of organization.